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Exposição à Radiação Proveniente de Antenas de Estação Base

Título Levels of Radiofrequency Radiation from GSM Mobile Telephone Base Stations
Resumo This report presents field survey measurements data and provides information on the levels of radiofrequency (RF) radiation to which members of the public may be exposed from mobile telephone base stations. The measured RF electromagnetic energy (EME) levels are compared with the maximum permitted limit for non-occupational exposure with respect to the Radiocommunications (Electromagnetic Radiation Human Exposure) Standard 1999 which specifies a maximum non-occupational exposure limit of 2 W/m2 (equivalent to 200 μW/cm2) at relevant base station frequencies. Although the focus of the survey was on measuring the RF EME emission levels from the digital Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), the environmental RF EME measurement component of the project involved investigating the EME levels from other sources, including the analog Advance Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS), VHF TV, UHF TV, AM radio, FM radio and Paging. The results clearly demonstrate that the RF EME emissions from GSM base stations are several orders of magnitude below the maximum permitted limit. A worst case RF EME power flux density prediction, based on our measurements from GSM base stations, is 0.178 μW/cm2 (the 200 μW/cm2 limit of power flux density is at least 1,000 times this predicted value). However, the average RF exposure level from GSM base stations is considerably less, at 0.0016 μW/cm2 (the 200 μW/cm2 limit of power flux density is at least 100,000 times this average value). Measurements of the fixed site environmental RF EME power flux density levels indicate that, relative to the maximum exposure limit permitted in the standard, after adjusting the exposure limit with respect to the frequency of the signal, the highest environmental RF exposure was FM radio (0.0259 μW/cm2), with the 200 μW/cm2 limit of power flux density at least 7,000 times this value.
Fonte Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA)
Origem Austrália
Autor/Editor Line et al.
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência Technical Report 129
Data Janeiro 2000
Título Measuring Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation (9 kHz - 300 GHz)
Resumo This Recommendation specifies in-situ measurement procedures in order to assess electromagnetic fields for the purpose of comparison against limits for human exposure applying in CEPT countries (e.g. EU 1999/519/EC,ICNIRP guidelines, national limits,…). It is important to note that this recommendation does not itself standardise or define exposure limits, or cover human exposure to radio signals.
Fonte Electronic Communications Committee - European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (ECC-CEPT)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor Frequency Management Working Group (FM WG)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Referência ECC/REC/(02)04
Data Outubro 2003
Título Mobile telecommunications base stations - exposure to electromagnetic fields. Report of a short term mission within COST 244bis
Resumo This report first gives a brief description of GSM mobile telephone systems and base stations, emphasizing some properties of these systems that may have an influence on the outcome of measurement activities. The rationale, design and reporting of measurements are then discussed. The existence and variations in different regulations, standards and recommendations are described, followed by an evaluation of measurement data in terms of science-based standards. The report ends with some conclusions and recommendations for further activities. Closer descriptions of the situation in some of the participating countries (Austria, Germany, France, Hungary and Sweden) are found in the Appendices.
Fonte COST 281 - Potential Health Implications from Mobile Communication Systems
Origem Europa
Autor/Editor Georg Neubauer (Chairman)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Data Setembro 2001
Título monIT Project - A Procedure for Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation in the Presence of Multiple Base Stations
Resumo This document describes the measurement procedure adopted by the monIT Project for monitoring electromagnetic radiation originated by multiple base stations from mobile communication systems. It specifies techniques for the measurement of electromagnetic fields in order to assess compliance with thresholds for human exposure. The overall procedure is based on the recommendation ECC/REC (02)04 from CEPT, which specifies a measurement method to assess electromagnetic radiation levels on the frequency band from 9 kHz to 300 GHz. A simple method for the selection of measurement points is also proposed. It was developed by the monIT Project team and consists in a several steps procedure, depending on the topology type of the surrounding antennas and on the number of transmitters. The proposed approach aims to be as practical as possible, allowing a systematic use of the method.
Fonte COST 281 'Workshop on RF Exposure assessment' , Paris, France on September 20-21, 2004
Origem Portugal
Autor/Editor Luis M. Correia, Carlos Fernandes, Gonçalo Carpinteiro, Carla Oliveira
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência MONIT_Ext_Tec_0147_03_COST281Paris
Data Setembro 2004
Título Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields: Practical Application of NRPB Guidance
Resumo Current NRPB guidance on exposure to electromagnetic fields was published in 1993. Since then, NRPB has gained considerable experience of the practical implementation of this guidance in industrial environments.This report describes strategies that have been developed to allow comparisons to be made between measured exposure levels and the NRPB restrictions on exposure in situations where the straightforward application of the investigation levels may not always be appropriate.
Fonte National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB)
Origem Reino Unido
Autor/Editor P. J. Chadwick
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Link amazon
Referência NRPB - R301
Data Julho 1998