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O FAQtos está em curso no INOV-INESC, tendo como objectivo disponibilizar publicamente informação relevante sobre radiação electromagnética em comunicações móveis (...)

 

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Título Artificial Tanning Sunbeds: risk and guidance
Resumo This is a practical guide, prepared by Craig Sinclair, World Health Organization (WHO), intended for government health authorities, to assist them in the development of public health policy in relation to sunbeds. In general, sunbeds predominantly emit UVA radiation, which is thought to be the least damaging of the UV radiation spectrum. However in recent years, sunbeds have been manufactured that produce higher levels of UVB to mimic the solar spectrum and speed the tanning process. Overexposure to UV radiation from the sun and artificial sources is of considerable public health concern. UV radiation plays an important role in the development of skin cancer, cataracts, and other eye conditions, and suppresses the immune system. Cumulative UV radiation also results in premature skin ageing. Estimates from the WHO show that sun exposure may have been a key contributor to the development of cataracts in up to 20% of people who have cataracts. While WHO does not recommend the use of UV tanning devices for cosmetic purposes, it is recognized that sunbeds continue to be available to the public. For this reason there is a need for guidance to reduce the risks associated with their use.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor Craig Sinclair, World Health Organization (WHO)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência
Data Janeiro 2003
Título Biological and Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields from Video Display Terminals
Resumo Video display terminals (VDTs) are commonly used for information display together with a computer and keyboard. Questions have been raised about adverse health effects associated with the electric and magnetic fields found near the cathode ray tube (CRT) used in a VDT. Television receivers also use CRTs in a similar fashion but concerns about health effects have centered on the VDT, perhaps because it is usually used in closer proximity. Neither laboratory nor epidemiological research has shown convincing evidence that the electromagnetic fields emanating from VDTs adversely affected the health of VDT operators. Studies of effects on pregnant women using VDTs have failed to establish a link between VDT fields and miscarriages or birth defects. However, not all research issues have been settled and it will be valuable for research to continue until it is possible to come to a still firmer conclusion. This paper addresses health issues related to the electric and magnetic fields of VDTs. It was developed by the Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR ) of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE ), and represents the considered judgment of an international group with expertise in the subject area. It updates an earlier statement on this topic that was issued in August 1990.
Fonte Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor IEEE - COMAR
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Disponível online
Referência
Data Janeiro 1997
Título Effects of EMF on the Environment
Resumo This information sheet summarizes the current scientific understanding on the effects of exposure to EMF fields on the living environment, across the electromagnetic spectrum in the frequency range 0-300 GHz. This range covers all frequencies that are emitted into the environment through use of EMF technology. Recommendations are also given for further research to fill gaps in knowledge needed to better assess EMF environmental impacts.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor World Health Organization (WHO)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência
Data Fevereiro 2005
Título Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health - Static electric and magnetic fields
Resumo The International EMF Project of the World Health Organization (WHO) has recently reviewed the health implications of high static field exposure and highlighted the importance of public health protection for medical staff and patients (particularly children and pregnant women) and workers in industries producing high field magnets (Environmental Health Criteria, 2006).
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor WHO
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento HTML
Referência Fact Sheet 299
Data Janeiro 2006
Título Extremely Low Frequency Fields - Environmental Health Criteria Monograph No.238
Resumo This EHC addresses the possible health effects of exposure to extremely low frequency (>0 Hz – 100 kHz) electric and magnetic fields. By far the majority of studies concern the health effects resulting from exposure to power frequency (50–60 Hz) magnetic fields; a few studies address the effects of exposure to power frequency electric fields. In addition, a number of studies have addressed the effects of exposure to the very low frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) switched gradient magnetic fields used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and, more commonly, the weaker VLF fields emitted by visual display units (VDU’s) and televisions.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor WHO
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento HTML
Referência EHC Monograph 238
Data Janeiro 2007
Título Guidance on determining compliance of exposure to pulsed and complex non-sinusoidal waveforms below 100 kHz with ICNIRP guidelines
Resumo The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has published guidelines for limiting exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (ICNIRP 1998a, b) and has provided frequency dependent basic restrictions and reference levels from which a hazard assessment for exposures to electric and magnetic fields can be made. This document provides clarification for assessing compliance with the guidelines for pulsed and complex non-sinusoidal waveforms with frequency components predominantly up to 100 kHz. The approaches described may be helpful to product standards setting bodies concerned with metrology. In the frequency range up to 100 kHz there are a number of sources of non-sinusoidal magnetic fields with the potential to exceed the reference levels for exposures specified in the ICNIRP guidelines. Common sources include electronic article surveillance gates, demagnetizers, electronic security systems, and metal detectors, and these generate predominantly magnetic fields. Therefore, this statement focuses mainly on magnetic fields; however, this can be readily extended to electric fields.
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor ICNIRP
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência
Data Março 2003
Título Interim Guidelines on Limits of Human Exposure to Airborne Ultrasound
Resumo These guidelines are primarily aimed at protection against exposure from devices emitting limited to frequencies having one-third-octave bands and guidance is given on limits of human exposure to airborne acoustic energy in the ultrasound range. Adverse health effects of exposure to airborne acoustic energy at levels normally encountered have been reported only at frequencies below 100 kHz and nearly all below 50 kHz. Thus, this standard has been limited to frequencies having one third-octave bands with mid frequencies from 20 kHz to 100 kHz.
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência
Data Janeiro 1984
Título Intermediate Frequencies (IF)
Resumo A relatively small number of studies has been conducted on the biological effects or health risks of IF fields. This is due, in part, to the fact that fewer types of devices produce fields in this frequency range. But because these devices now have a high consumer and industrial market penetration, it is important to evaluate their impact on human health. This information sheet addresses the known health effects of IF fields, and offers recommendations for further study.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor World Health Organization (WHO)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência
Data Fevereiro 2005
Título INTERSUN - The Global UV Project - A guide and compendium to reduce the burden of disease resulting from exposure to UV radiation while enjoying the sun safely
Resumo This document is intended for national and local authorities and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) active in the area of UV radiation and sun protection. It highlights INTERSUN’s priority activities and publications. The purpose of this document is to provide information from INTERSUN that can be used to develop and implement integrated public health programmes, which reduce health risks from excessive UV radiation exposure. An important objective is to facilitate the harmonization of national activities and coordination of international activities through the use of the Global Solar UV Index and its associated health protection messages.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor Radiation and Environmental Health Unit, World Health Organization (WHO)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência ISBN 92 4 159105 6
Data Janeiro 2003
Título Manual for Measuring Occupational Electric and Magnetic Field Exposures
Resumo The purpose of this manual is to assist investigators in developing methods for occupational exposure assessments for electric and magnetic fields (EMF). Scientific reports that associate EMF with increased risks of various diseases have led to exposure assessments for the purposes of research, source assessment, and the surveillance of worker exposures. To provide guidance for these studies, methods that have been used successfully to measure EMF are summarized and presented in a standard format. The scope of the manual is methods for measuring occupational EMF with frequencies below 30 kHz. This covers most fields resulting directly from DC or 50/60 Hz AC electricity, as well as common electric and electronic equipment such as Video Display Terminals (VDT). In this manual, exposure assessment protocols are classified either as complete methods or partial methods. Complete methods are sets of instructions for the sampling strategy, calibration, measurement, data management and calculation of EMF exposure metrics. The exposure metric and other information about the method are contained in a summary table accompanied by a critique of the method’s strengths and weaknesses. Partial methods are essentially parts of a full method that emphasize important aspects of EMF exposure assessments: sampling strategies, spot measurement surveys, personal monitoring, area monitoring, measuring EMF characteristics, measuring EMFs from sources, walkthrough monitoring, quality control, calibration, data management, and calculating exposure metrics. By combining aspects of these complete and partial methods, industrial hygienists and other investigators can assemble protocols specifically tailored to assess EMF exposures for different purposes, applications, and work environments.
Fonte National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor Bowman et al.
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link cdc.gov
Referência NIOSH Publication No. 98-154
Data Outubro 1998
Título Microwave ovens
Resumo This Information Sheet discusses the operation and safety aspects of microwave ovens used in the home. More details about the nature of electromagnetic fields and health effects of radiofrequency and microwave fields are available in WHO Fact Sheets 182 and 183.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor World Health Organization (WHO)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência
Data Fevereiro 2005
Título Microwave Ovens and their Hazards
Resumo Information Sheet discussing the operation and safety aspects of microwave ovens used in the home.
Fonte Canadia Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS)
Origem Canadá
Autor/Editor CCOHS
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento HTML
Referência
Data Novembro 2004
Título NIOSH publications on video display terminals
Resumo This publication is a collection of NIOSH studies and statements on all kinds of health effects from working with VDTs, including studies that found no link between their EMF emissions and reproductive effects.
Fonte National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor NIOSH
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link cdc.gov
Referência NIOSH Publication No. 99-135 (3rd ed., 1999)
Data Setembro 1999
Título Possible Health Risks to the General Public from the Use of Security and Similar Devices
Resumo The objective of this executive summary is to address the possible adverse effects on public health from exposure to pulsed and continuous wave (cw) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) associated with the use of electronic security and similar devices. The document summarises the results of the Concerted Action QLK4-1999-01214 “Development of advice to the EC on the risk to health of the general public from the use of security and similar devices employing pulsed and continuous electromagnetic fields” within the program Quality of Life (QoL), Key Action 4 “Environment and Health” of the Fifth Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC) (full report: ICNIRP 12/2002, ISBN: 3-934994-01-6). The document will provide advice to the EC and European Members States as an input to policy development. Secondary objectives include: a review of the scientific evidence of possible harm to human health from EMF exposure relevant to fields at the operating frequencies of such devices; a review of the applicability and limitations of currently available exposure assessment techniques and recommendations for future health risk assessment and research priorities.
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor ICNIRP
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link icnirp.org
Referência
Data Janeiro 2002
Título Safe Use of Lasers
Resumo standard represents the most comprehensive laser safety information available and is designed to assist laser users in developing laser safety programs. ANSI Z136.1 provides complete information on laser classifications, hazard analysis and control measures needed for the development of a comprehensive laser program. A must for all laser users.
Fonte American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Link www.lasersafety.org
Referência ANSI Z136.1 (2000)
Data Janeiro 2000
Título Safety of laser products - Part 1: Equipment classification, requirements and user guide
Resumo Deals with the safety of laser products. Covers laser radiation in the wavelength range 180 nm to 1 mm, indicates safe working levels of laser radiation and introduces a system of classification of lasers and laser products according to their degree of hazard. Replaces IEC 60825 (1984) and IEC 60820 (1986). Has the status of a group safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.
Fonte International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor IEC Technical Committee 76
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Link iec.ch
Referência IEC 60825-1:2014
Data Maio 2014
Título Static and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Fields
Resumo Presentation from World Health Organization, that reviews our current state of knowledge of fields that are either static or have a frequency below 300 Hz. These frequencies are particularly important from a public health standpoint because of their widespread use for the generation and transmission of electrical power.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor World Health Organization (WHO)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência
Data Janeiro 2004
Título Static Fields - Environmental Health Criteria Monograph No.232
Resumo This monograph represents the most thorough health risk assessment ever undertaken for the static magnetic fields that are being increasingly used in medicine, industry and comerce.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor WHO
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento HTML
Referência EHC Monograph 232
Data Janeiro 2006
Título Ultraviolet Radiation and Health
Resumo Web page with information on several topics about ultraviolet (UV) radiation: basics, environmental factors that influence the UV level, ozone depletion and UV-related health effects.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor World Health Organization (WHO)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento HTML
Referência
Data Janeiro 2003

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