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O FAQtos está em curso no INOV-INESC, tendo como objectivo disponibilizar publicamente informação relevante sobre radiação electromagnética em comunicações móveis (...)

 

Interferência e Compatibilidade Eletromagnética



Título American National Standard for Methods of Measurement of Compatibility between Wireless Communication Devices and Hearing Aids
Resumo This standard applies to both wireless communications devices (WD) and hearing aids. It sets forth uniform methods of measurement and parametric requirements for the electromagnetic and operational compatibility and accessibility of hearing aids used with wireless communications devices, including cordless, cellular, and Personal Communications Service (PCS) phones, operating in the range of 800 MHz to 3 GHz. However, this version is focused on existing services, which are in common use. Accordingly, in this version tests are provided for services in the 800-950 MHz and 1.6-2.0 GHz frequency bands.
Fonte Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor IEEE - Committee on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Link ieeexplore.ieee.org
Referência ANSI C63.19-2001
Data Outubro 2001
Título American National Standard recommended practice for an on-site, ad hoc test method for estimating radiated electromagnetic immunity of medical devices to specific radio-frequency transmitters
Resumo Guidance is provided for health-care organizations in evaluating the radiated RF electromagnetic immunity of their existing inventories of medical devices to their existing inventories of RF transmitters, as well as to RF transmitters that are commonly available. This recommended practice can also be used for newly purchased medical devices and RF transmitters, as well as for pre-purchase evaluation. It applies to medical devices used in health-care facilities and to portable transmitters with a rated power output of 8 W or less. It does not apply to implantable medical devices, transport environments such as ambulances and helicopters, or to RF transmitters rated at more than 8 W.
Fonte Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) - International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (SCC39)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor IEEE - Committee on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Link ieeexplore.ieee.org
Referência ANSI C63.18-1997
Data Dezembro 1997
Título Diretiva 2004/108/CE, de 31 de Dezembro de 2004
Resumo A presente diretiva regulamenta a compatibilidade eletromagnética dos equipamentos e tem como objetivo assegurar o funcionamento do mercado interno, exigindo que os
equipamentos cumpram um nível adequado de compatibilidade eletromagnética.
Fonte Conselho da União Europeia/Parlamento Europeu
Origem Europa
Autor/Editor Conselho da União Europeia/Parlamento Europeu
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência Jornal Oficial das Comunidades Europeias, L 390/24 de 31/12/2004 (2004/108/CE)
Data Dezembro 2004
Título Electromagnetic Compatibility of Medical Devices with Mobile Communications
Resumo The compatibility of mobile communication equipment with medical devices is an area where much published information and guidance is conflicting. We have hence organised a large study, based on research conducted at 18 locations including hospitals and MDA evaluation centres. Data were gathered for 178 different models of medical device using a wide range of radio handsets. Overall, in 23% of tests medical devices suffered electromagnetic interference (EMI) from handsets. 43% of these interference incidents would have had a direct impact on patient care, and were rated as serious.
Fonte Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)
Origem Reino Unido
Autor/Editor Medical Devices Agency (MDA)
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Link http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk
Referência DB 9702
Data Março 1997
Título Emergency service radios and mobile data terminals: compatibility problems with medical devices
Resumo This device bulletin covers the impact of radio communications on the safe use of medical devices (including pacemakers implanted in patients) both inside ambulances and at the scene of an accident in the vicinity of emergency vehicles. It extends the guidance in DB9702 "Electromagnetic compatibility of medical devices with mobile communications". We also consider the possible risks to devices within healthcare facilities, both when emergency vehicles are parked nearby and when mobile data terminals are in use. The latter are transmitting devices which send and receive text messages, and are frequently used by servicing personnel.
Fonte Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)
Origem Reino Unido
Autor/Editor Medical Devices Agency (MDA)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência DB 1999(02)
Data Maio 1999
Título Implants for surgery - Active implantable medical devices - Part 1: General requirements for safety, marking and for information to be provided by the manufacturer
Resumo This part 1 of EN 45502 specifies requirements that are generally applicable to active implantable medical devices. For particular types of active implantable medical devices, these essential requirements are supplemented or modified by the requirements of particular standards which form additional parts of this European Standard. The tests that are specified in EN 45502 are type tests and are to be carried out on samples of a device to show compliance. This part of EN 45502 is applicable not only to active implantable medical devices that are electrically powered but also to those powered by other energy sources (for example by gas pressure or by springs). This part of EN 45502 is also applicable to some non-implantable parts and accessories of the devices. The device that is commonly referred to as an active implantable medical device may in fact be a single device, a combination of devices, or a combination of a device or devices and one or more accessories. Not all of these parts are required to be either partially or totally implantable, but there is a need to specify some requirements of non-implantable parts and accessories if they could affect the safety or performance of the implantable device. The terminology used in this European Standard is intended to be consistent with the terminology of Directive 90/385/EEC.
Fonte European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor IEC Sub-Committee 62D
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Link cenelec.eu
Referência EN 45502-1:2015
Data Maio 2015
Título Medical electrical equipment: Part 1-2: General requirements for safety - Collateral standard: Electromagnetic disturbances - Requirements and tests
Resumo Specifies requirements and tests for electromagnetic compatibility of medical electrical equipment and medical electrical systems and serves as the basis of electromagnetic compatibility requirements and tests in Particular Standards. The existence of electromagnetic emission requirements is essential for the protection of: - safety services; - other medical electrical equipment and medical electrical systems; - non-medical electrical equipment (e.g. computers); - telecommunications (e.g. radio/TV, telephone, radio-navigation). The existence of electromagnetic immunity requirements is essential to assure safety of equipment and systems. The immunity test levels specified in this standard (EN 60601 test levels) represent the range found in the general medical use environment.
Fonte International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) / International Organization for Standardization (isso)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor IEC Technical Sub-Committee 62A
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Link iec.ch
Referência IEC/EN 60601-1-2
Data Fevereiro 2014
Título Radiofrequency Interference with Medical Devices
Resumo The past few years have seen increased reports that medical devices, such as pacemakers, apnea monitors, electrically powered wheelchairs, etc., have failed to operate correctly because of interference from various emitters of radiofrequency energy. This condition is called radiofrequency interference (RFI). The consequences of these failures range from inconvenience to serious injuries and death. Reasons for this problem are twofold: 1) increasing numbers of electronically controlled medical devices with inadequate electronic protection against RFI, and 2) a significant increase in the number of RF sources in the environment. Medical devices are widely used outside the hospital and may be attached to, or implanted in, patients. Portable wireless communications equipment, including cellular phones, handheld transceivers, and vehicle mounted transceivers, comprise one of the largest sources of RFI. Some medical devices are especially sensitive to the type of digital modulation that some of the wireless communications devices utilize. (...) COMAR recommends that the various parties involved in the manufacture and use of RFI prone medical devices take steps to avoid serious RFI problems that may lead to safety hazards. Medical device manufacturers should design and test their products to ensure conformance with current RFI standards and educate the users of their devices about the possible symptoms of potential RFI. If there exists the possibility of RFI problems to medical devices, steps should be taken to ensure that all sources of RF energy be kept at a sufficient distance.
Fonte Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor IEEE - COMAR
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Disponível online
Referência
Data Janeiro 1998
Título Sistemas de Comunicações Móveis - Interferência com dispositivos médicos em unidades de saúde
Resumo Circular informativa da Direção-Geral da Saúde (DGS), produzida pela Divisão de Saúde Ambiental e destinada a todos os serviços de saúde. Transmite orientações às unidades de saúde, essenciais para minimizar o risco de interferência com os dispositivos médicos que oferecem maior sensibilidade.
Fonte Direcção-Geral da Saúde (DGS)
Origem Portugal
Autor/Editor DGS
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência Circular Informativa nº 26/DSA de 02/06/2006
Data Junho 2006
Título Sistemas de Comunicações Móveis: Interferência e Compatibilidade Eletromagnética
Resumo Neste documento analisa-se a temática da interferência e compatibilidade eletromagnética dos sistemas de comunicações móveis com outros dispositivos. A análise efetuada abrange vários cenários, nomeadamente, ambientes hospitalares, ambiente doméstico, aviões e automóveis, entre outros.
Fonte Projecto monIT
Origem Portugal
Autor/Editor Carla Oliveira, Luís M. Correia
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência monIT_Ext_Tec_0658_04_ReportCEM
Data Novembro 2008

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