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O FAQtos está em curso no INOV-INESC, tendo como objectivo disponibilizar publicamente informação relevante sobre radiação electromagnética em comunicações móveis (...)

 

Limites de Exposição à Radiação Eletromagnética



Título Advice on Limiting Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (0-300GHz)
Resumo The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) has the responsability for providing advice on exposure guidelines for electromagnetic fields (EMFs). As part of its policy of ongoing evaluation of scientific evidence and health risk assessment, NRPB has reviewed its advice on limiting exposure to EMFs and, at request of the Department of Health, has particulary addressed the issues of uncertainty in the science and aspects of precaution. As a result of this review, NRPB recommends the adoption of the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for limiting exposure to EMFs.
Fonte National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB)
Origem Reino Unido
Autor/Editor NRPB
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link NRPB Vol.15 No.2
Referência Volume 15, No. 2
Data Janeiro 2004
Título Biological Effects and Exposure Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields
Resumo NCRP Report No. 86 presents the result of a comprehensive evaluation of the available literature on the biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. This Report begins with a discussion of studies of biological effects at the molecular level and continues to progressively larger scales of interaction, covering macromolecular and cellular effects, chromosomal and mutagenic effects and carcinogenic effects. The Report then goes on to treat systemic effects such as those relating to reproduction, growth and development, hematopoesis and immunology, endocrinology and the autonomic nerve function, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects, interaction of electromagnetic fields with the central nervous system and the special senses. The Report treats neurological effects and assesses studies relating to behavioral effects. The careful evaluation of the research studies forms the basis for the exposure criteria enunciated in the Report. These specify permissible levels, not only for individuals exposed occupationally, but for members of the general public exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.
Fonte National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor NCRP
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Link NCRP No. 86
Referência NCRP Report No. 86
Data Janeiro 1986
Título Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz)
Resumo The main objective of this publication is to establish guidelines for limiting EMF exposure that will provide protection against known adverse health effects. An adverse health effect causes detectable impairment of the health of the exposed individual or of his or her offspring; a biological effect, on the other hand, may or may not result in an adverse health effect. Studies on both direct and indirect effects of EMF are described; direct effects result from direct interaction of fields with the body, indirect effects involve interactions with an object at a different electric potential from the body. Results of laboratory and epidemiological studies, basic exposure criteria, and reference levels for practical hazard assessment are discussed, and the guidelines presented apply to occupational and public exposure.
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor ICNIRP
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência
Data Janeiro 1998
Título IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields, 0 to 3 kHz
Resumo Recommendations are given to prevent harmful effects in human beings exposed to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range of 0-3 kHZ. The recommendations are intended to apply to exposures of the general public, as well as to individuals in controlled environments. They are not intended to apply to the purposeful exposure of patients by or under the direction of practitioners of the healing arts and may not be protective with respect to the use of medical devices or implants. A rationale that describes how the recommendations were arrived at, and the factors taken into account in formulating them, is included.
Fonte Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (ICES)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor IEEE - ICES
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Link ieeexplore.ieee.org
Referência IEEE Std. C95.6-2002
Data Outubro 2002
Título IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz
Resumo Recommendations to protect against harmful effects in human beings exposed to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz are provided in this standard. These recommendations are intended to apply in controlled environments and for general population exposure. These recommendations are not intended to apply to the exposure of patients by or under the direction of physicians and medical professionals.
Fonte Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) - International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (SCC39)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor IEEE - ICES
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Link ieeexplore.ieee.org
Referência IEEE Std. C95.1-2005 (Revision IEEE Std C95.1-1991)
Data Abril 2006
Título Implementation report on the Council Recommendation limiting the public exposure to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz)
Resumo The Commission was invited in the Council Recommendation (1999/519/EC)3 to “keep the matters covered by this recommendation under review, with a view to its revision and updating, taking into account also possible effects, which are currently the object of research, including relevant aspects of precaution and to prepare a report, within five years, taking into account the reports of the Member States and the latest scientific data and advice”. The aim of this report serves to update the European Parliament, the Council and the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Consumer Policy on the work undertaken at a Community level by the Commission and Member States since the Council Recommendation of 12 July 1999 abovementioned. This report also aims to provide policy makers across the Union with a synopsis of the various measures being employed by the Member and Accession States, leading to a better understanding of the scope of the current measures. And indeed, the review process which is required after a period of five years following the adoption of the Recommendation has been initiated earlier to take into account mounting public concern, the development of new technologies and the necessity to respond more rapidly to new scientific evidence.
Fonte Conselho da União Europeia
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor Conselho da União Europeia
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência
Data Janeiro 2003
Título Maximum Exposure Levels to Radiofrequency Fields - 3 kHz to 300 GHz
Resumo This Radiation Protection Standard (hereafter referred to as ‘the Standard’) sets limits for human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields in the frequency range 3 kHz to 300 GHz. The Standard includes: • mandatory basic restrictions for both occupational and general public exposure involving all or part of the human body; • indicative reference levels for measurable quantities derived from the basic restrictions; • approaches for verification of compliance with the Standard; • requirements for management of risk in occupational exposure and measures for protection of the general public.
Fonte Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA)
Origem Austrália
Autor/Editor ARPANSA
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link arpansa.gov.au
Referência Radiation Protection Series Publication No. 3
Data Março 2002
Título Model Legislation for Electromagnetic Fields Protection
Resumo In order to assist countries not having appropriate legislation to protect their population, the International EMF Project has developed a Model Act and a Model Regulation that provide the legal framework to provide this protection. An important aspect of this model legislation is that it uses international standards that limits EMF exposure of people (ICNIRP exposure standards) and international standards that limit the emissions of EMF from devices (IEC and IEEE device emission standards).
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor WHO - EMF Project
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link who.int
Referência ISBN 9241594322
Data Janeiro 2006
Título Recomendação do Conselho de 12 de Julho de 1999, relativa à limitação da exposição da população aos campos eletromagnéticos (0 Hz - 300 GHz)
Resumo Há a necessidade de estabelecer, sob a forma de recomendações dirigidas a todos os Estados Membros, uma política comunitária relativa à exposição aos campos eletromagnéticos com o objetivo de proteger o público. Esta recomendação estabelece medidas legislativas com o objetivo de limitar a exposição de trabalhadores e público em geral à radiação eletromagnética não ionizante. Esta recomendação tem o objetivo de proteger a saúde pública, e, portanto, aplica-se, em particular, a áreas relevantes onde a população em geral passa períodos de tempo significativos em relação aos efeitos cobertos pela recomendação.
Fonte Conselho da União Europeia
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor S. NIINISTÖ
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência Jornal Oficial das Comunidades Europeias, L199/59, (1999/519/CE)
Data Julho 1999
Título Retificação à Diretiva 2004/40/CE do Parlamento Europeu e do Conselho, de 29 de Abril de 2004, relativa às prescrições mínimas de segurança e saúde em matéria de exposição dos trabalhadores aos riscos devidos aos agentes físicos (campos eletromagnéticos)
Resumo A diretiva estabelece as prescrições mínimas em matéria de proteção dos trabalhadores contra os riscos para a sua segurança e saúde a que estão, ou podem vir a estar sujeitos devido à exposição a campos eletromagnéticos (0 Hz-300 GHz) durante o trabalho. A presente diretiva tem por objeto o risco para a saúde e a segurança dos trabalhadores devido aos efeitos prejudiciais conhecidos que se manifestam a curto prazo no corpo humano, causados pela circulação de correntes induzidas e pela absorção de energia, bem como pelas correntes de contacto.
Fonte Parlamento Europeu e Conselho da União Europeia
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor Cox,P. and McDowell,M.
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Link Documento PDF
Referência Jornal Oficial das Comunidades Europeias, L184/1, (2004/40/EC)
Data Maio 2004
Título Safety Code 6 - Limits of Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields in the Frequency Range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz
Resumo The purpose of this code is to establish safety limits for human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic energy in the frequency range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz. The safety limits in this code apply to all individuals working at, or visiting, federally regulated sites. The safety limits in this code are based on an ongoing review of published scientific studies on the health impacts of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy. The current version of this code reflects the scientific literature published up to August 2009 and replaces the previous version published in 1999.
Fonte Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety (HECS)
Origem Canadá
Autor/Editor Consumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau
Disponibilidade Disponível por pedido
Link Safety Code 6 (2009)
Referência Safety Code 6 (2009)
Data Janeiro 2009

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